The Emperor


  • 1 The Emperor is the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power (the Constitution of Japan, Article 1).
  • 2 The Imperial Throne is dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial House Law passed by the Diet (Constitution, Article 2).


  • 1 The Emperor performs only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution, and has no powers related to government (Constitution, Article 4(1)).
  • 2 The Emperor's acts in matters of State (Constitution, Articles 6, Article 7, and Article 4(2))
    • (1)Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet
    • (2)Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet
    • (3)Promulgation of amendments of the Constitution, laws, cabinet orders, and treaties
    • (4)Convocation of the Diet
    • (5)Dissolution of the House of Representatives
    • (6)Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet
    • (7)Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers
    • (8)Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights
    • (9)Awarding of honors
    • (10)Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law
    • (11)Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers
    • (12)Performance of ceremonial functions
    • (13)Delegation of the Emperor's acts on matters of State
  • 3 The advice and approval of the Cabinet is required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of State, and the Cabinet is responsible for them (Constitution, Article 3).