Finances of the Imperial House

Property and expenses of the Imperial House

All property of the Imperial Household belongs to the State. All expenses of the Imperial Household are appropriated by the Diet in the budget (Constitution, Article 88). The budget appropriated for the Imperial Family consists of Personal Expenses, Palace-related Expenses, Allowance for Imperial Family Members, and Palace-related Expenses (Imperial House Economy Law, Article 3).

Personal Expenses
These are the day-to-day personal expenses of His Majesty the Emperor and the inner-court members of the Imperial Family (Naitei-Kozoku). The amount is stipulated by law, and was 324 million yen for FY2017.
Allowance for Imperial Family Members
Each member of the Imperial Family, excluding His Majesty and the inner-court members of the Imperial Family, is provided an annual allowance in order that the Imperial Family is able to maintain a lifestyle that befits its position.
The basis for calculating the Allowance for Imperial Family Members is stipulated by law. The total amount of this allowance was 215 million yen for FY2017.
The Allowance for Imperial Family Members includes one off allowances paid when a member of the Imperial Family establishes his or her independent household, or leaves his or her Imperial status.
Palace-related Expenses
This amount is meant for the Imperial Family's official duties, including ceremonies, state banquets and receptions, and domestic and overseas visits. It is also for maintenance and management of facilities of the Imperial Palace and other properties. The amount was 5.68 billion yen for FY2017.

Restrictions on transfer of assets

No property can be given to or received by the Imperial Household without authorization of the Diet except when the amount is within the ranges listed below, or when the transfer is within normal personal financial activities? (Constitution, Article 8; Imperial House Economy Law, Article 2; and Law for the Enforcement of the Imperial House Economy Law, Article 2).

  Limits for giving gifts (in a financial year) Limits for receiving gifts (in a financial year)
The Emperor and inner-court members
of Imperial Family
¥18 million ¥6 million
Other adult members of the Imperial Family ¥1.6 million each ¥1.6 million each
Other minor members of the Imperial Family ¥0.35 million each ¥0.35 million each
  • (Reference) Cases for which Diet authorization was sought as per Article 8 of the Constitution.
    • Authorization (March 13, 1959) at the time of the marriage of His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Akihito
    • Authorization (June 26, 1990) at the time of enthronement of His Majesty the Reigning Emperor to the Throne
    • Authorization (April 28, 1993) at the time of the marriage of His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Naruhito

Special cases related to inheritance of Imperial House property

Traditional properties as are to be handed down with the Throne are to be inherited by the Imperial Heir at the time of his accession to the Throne (Imperial House Economy Law, Article 7).

The Imperial House Economy Council (Imperial House Economy Law, Articles 8 to 11)

  • 1 Composition of the Council (Imperial House Economy Law, Articles 8 and 9)
    • Council Members … 8 (Speaker and Vice-Speaker of the House of Representatives, Presidents and Vice Presidents of the House of Councilors, the Prime Minister, Minister of Finance, Grand Steward of the Imperial Household Agency, and the President of the Board of Audit)
    • Reserve members … 8

    Members of the Imperial House Economy Council

    • Council Members
      • Speaker of the House of Representatives
      • Vice-Speaker of the House of Representatives
      • President of the House of Councilors
      • Vice-President of the House of Councilors
      • Prime Minister
      • Minister of Finance
      • Grand Steward of the Imperial Household Agency
      • President of the Board of Audit
    • Reserve members
      • A member of House of Representatives
      • A member of House of Representatives
      • A member of House of Councilors
      • A member of House of Councilors
      • Minister of State
      • Administrative Vice Minister of Finance
      • Vice-Grand Steward of the Imperial Household Agency
      • A Commissioner of the Board of Audit
  • 2 Mandate of the Council
    • (1) Changes in the amount fixed for the Personal Expenses and Allowance for Imperial Family Members (Imperial House Economy Law, Articles 4 and 6).
    • (2) Authorization for starting independent households (Imperial House Economy Law, Article 6).
    • (3) Authorization of the amount of one off payment for a member of the Imperial Family leaving his or her imperial status (Imperial House Economy Law, Article 6).
    A meeting of the Imperial House Economy Council (Imperial Household Agency Building)
    September 16, 2014